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Microbiology Logo Microbiology & Immunology
Te Tari Moromoroiti me te Ārai Mate

Dr John Hale

Research interests:

Probiotics, antibiotic mechanisms of action and resistance, drug discovery, microbial biotechnology



Investigation of Streptococcus salivarius-mediated inhibition of pneumococcal adherence to pharyngeal epithelial cells. Manning J, Dunne EM, Wescombe PA, Hale JD, Mulholland EK, Tagg JR, Robins-Browne RM, Satzke C. BMC Microbiol. 2016 Sep 29;16(1):225


Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization. Patras KA, Wescombe PA, Rösler B, Hale JD, Tagg JR, Doran KS. Infect Immun. 2015 Sep;83(9):3438-44.


Persistence of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 is dose dependent and megaplasmid transfer can augment their bacteriocin production and adhesion characteristics. Burton JP, Wescombe PA, Macklaim JM, Chai MH, Macdonald K, Hale JD, Tagg J, Reid G, Gloor GB, Cadieux PA. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 13;8(6):e65991.

Influence of the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius strain M18 on indices of dental health in children: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Burton JP, Drummond BK, Chilcott CN, Tagg JR, Thomson WM, Hale JD, Wescombe PA. J Med Microbiol. 2013 Jun;62(Pt 6):875-84.


Deciphering the mode of action of a synthetic antimicrobial peptide (Bac8c). Spindler, E.C., Hale, J.D.F, Giddings, T.H., Hancock, R.E.W., and Gill, R.T. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Apr;55(4):1706-16. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01053-10. 


Colistin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is mediated by complete loss of lipopolysaccharide. 2010 Sep 20. AAC. Moffatt, J.H., Harper, M., Harrison, P., Hale, J.D.F., Vinogradov, E., Seemann, T. Henry. R., Crane, B., St. Michael, F., Cox, A.D., Adler, B., Nation, R.L. Li, J. and J.D. Boyce

The Importance of Residue 13 and the C-terminus on the Structure and Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptide Aurein 2.2. John T. J. Cheng, John D.F. Hale, Jason Kindrachuk, Havard Jessen, Melissa Elliot, Robert E.W. Hancock, and Suzana K. Straus. Biophys J. 2010 Nov 3;99(9):2926-35.


Effects of net charge and the number of positively charged residues on the biological activity of amphipathic alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides. Jiang Z, Vasil AI, Hale J, Hancock RE, Vasil ML, Hodges RS. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;611:561-2.

Studying the Effect of Membrane Composition on the Antimicrobial Peptides Aurein 2.2 and 2.3 from Australian Southern Bell Frogs. John T. J. Cheng, John D. Hale, Melissa Elliott, Robert E. W. Hancock, and Suzana K. Straus.    Biophys J. 2009 Jan;96(2):552-65.


An X-ray spectromicroscopy study of competitive adsorption of protein and peptide onto polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate). Bonnie O. Leung, Adam P. Hitchcock, John L. Brash, Andreas Scholl, Andrew Doran, Peter Henklein, Joerg Overhage, Kai Hilpert, John D. Hale, Robert E. W. Hancock. Biointerphases Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. FB27-FB35 (June 2008)

Effects of hydrophobicity on the antifungal activity of alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides. Ziqing Jiang, Bart Jan Kullberg, Hein van der Lee, Adriana I. Vasil, John D. Hale, Colin T. Mant, Robert E. W. Hancock, Michael L. Vasil, Mihai G. Netea, and Robert S. Hodges.Chemical Biology & Drug Design, Volume 72, Number 6, December 2008 , pp. 483-495(13)

Effects of net charge and the number of positively charged residues on the biological activity of amphipathic alpha-helical cationic antimicrobial peptides Jiang Z, Vasil, AI, Hale J, Hancock REW, Vasil ML and Hodges RS Biopolymers. 2008;90(3):369-83. 


Characterization of the structure and membrane interaction of the antimicrobial peptides aurein 2.2 and 2.3 from Australian southern bell frogs. Pan Y.L., Cheng, J.T., Hale, J, Pan, J, Hancock, R.E.W., and Straus S.K.  Biophys J. 2007 Apr 15;92(8):2854-64.

Using intrinsic X-ray absorption spectral differences to identify and map peptides and proteins. Stewart-Ornstein, J., Hitchcock A. P., Hernandez Cruz, D., Henklein, P., Overhage J., Hilpert K., Hale J.D., Hancock R.E.W. J. Phys. Chem. B. 2007 Jul 5;111(26):7691-9 


Bacteriocin (mutacin) production by the Streptococcus mutans genome sequence reference strain UA159: elucidation of the antimicrobial repertoire by genetic dissection. J. D. F. Hale, Y-T Ting, R. W. Jack, J. R. Tagg, and N. C. K. Heng  Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2005 Nov;71(11):7613-7.

Identification of nlmTE, the locus encoding the ABC transport system required for export of nonlantibiotic mutacins in Streptococcus mutans. Hale JD, Heng NC, Jack RW and Tagg JR.  J. Bacteriol. 2005 Jul;187(14):5036-9. 


Studies of the genetic basis for mutacin N and its relationship to mutacin I.  Hale, J. D. F., Balakrishnan, M. and Tagg J. R.  2003 Proceedings of the XVth Lancefield International Symposium on Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases. Indian J Med Res. 2004 May;119 Suppl:247-51. 



Developing oral probiotics from Streptococcus salivarius. Philip A Wescombe, John D.F. Hale, Nicholas CK Heng & John R Tagg. Future Microbiology December 2012, 7(12), 1355-1371 

BLIS-producing Probiotics Targeting the Oral Cavity Tagg J. R., Hale J. D. F. and P.A. Wescombe 2012, September. Australian Society for Microbiology


The Alternative Mechanisms of Action of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides on Bacteria. John D. F. Hale and Robert E. W. Hancock. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 2007 Dec;5(6):951-9. Review

Book chapters


Streptococcal bacteriocin-producing strains as oral probiotic agents. In. The Bacteriocins: Current Knowledge and Future Prospects. John D. F. Hale, Philip Wescombe, John R. Tagg,and Nicholas C. K. Heng. 2016. Edited by: Robert L. Dorit, Sandra M. Roy and Margaret A. Riley). Caister Academic Press, U.K. Pages: 103-126.


Host Defense Peptides. In “Emerging Trends in Antibacterial Discovery – Answering the Call to Arms”.  Hale, J.D.F., Pena, O.M. and R.E.W. Hancock. 2011. Edited by AA. Miller and P.F. Miller, Eds. Ch 15. Pp. 323-344. Calister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK.

Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. In "Bacterial Pathogenesis: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms". Hale, J. D. F. 2011  C. Locht and M. Simonet Eds. Ch 14. Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK