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Microbiology Logo Microbiology & Immunology
Te Tari Moromoroiti me te Ārai Mate

Dr Noi Suwanarusk

Current research:

I work with Dr Bruce Russell on malaria. Vivax Malaria is the most widely distributed cause of human malaria. It is also the most and difficult to diagnose and treat. Our work focuses on the biology of the parasite Plasmodium and how we can kill it using therapeutics or vaccinations. To do this we have developed key ex vivo tools and methods to examine P. vivax drug susceptibility and reticulocyte invasion.


Chua, A. C. Y., Ong, J. J. Y., Malleret, B., Suwanarusk, R., Kosaisavee, V., Zeeman, A.-M., … Russell, B., & Bifani, P. (2019). Robust continuous in vitro culture of the Plasmodium cynomolgi erythrocytic stages. Nature Communications10, 3635.  doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-11332-4

Cravo, P., Machado, R. B., Leite, J. A., Leda, T., Suwanarusk, R., Bittencourt, N., … Russell, B., … Costa, F. T. M. (2018). In silico epitope mapping and experimental evaluation of the Merozoite Adhesive Erythrocytic Binding Protein (MAEBL) as a malaria vaccine candidate. Malaria Journal17, 20.  doi: 10.1186/s12936-017-2144-x

Chu, T. T. T., Sinha, A., Malleret, B., Suwanarusk, R., Park, J. E., Naidu, R., … Russell, B., & Chandramohanadas, R. (2018). Quantitative mass spectrometry of human reticulocytes reveal proteome-wide modifications during maturation. British Journal of Haematology180(1), 118-133. doi: 10.1111/bjh.14976

Basilico, N., Parapini, S., Sparatore, A., Romeo, S., Misiano, P., Vivas, L., … Russell, B., Suwanarusk, R., … Taramelli, D. (2017). In vivo and in vitro activities and ADME-Tox profile of a quinolizidine-modified 4-aminoquinoline: A potent anti-P. falciparum and Anti-P. vivax blood-stage antimalarial. Molecules22(12), 2102.  doi: 10.3390/molecules22122102

Kosaisavee, V., Suwanarusk, R., Chua, A. C. Y., Kyle, D. E., Malleret, B., Zhang, R., … Ong, J. J. Y., … Russell, B. (2017). Strict tropism for CD71+/CD234+ human reticulocytes limits the zoonotic potential of Plasmodium cynomolgiBlood130(11), 1357-1363.  doi: 10.1182/blood-2017-02-764787

Bancone, G., Malleret, B., Suwanarusk, R., Cowwiwat, N., Chu, C. S., McGready, R., … Russell, B. (2017). Asian G6PD-Mahidol reticulocytes sustain normal Plasmodium vivax development. Journal of Infectious Diseases216(2), 263-266.  doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix278

Zhang, R., Suwanarusk, R., Malleret, B., Cooke, B. M., Nosten, F., Lau, Y.-L., … Russell, B. (2016). A basis for rapid clearance of circulating ring-stage malaria parasites by the spiroindolone KAE609. Journal of Infectious Diseases213(1), 100-104.  doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv358

Auburn, S., Serre, D., Pearson, R. D., Amato, R., Sriprawat, K., To, S., … Suwanarusk, R., Russell, B., … Price, R. N. (2016). Genomic analysis reveals a common breakpoint in amplifications of the Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance 1 locus in Thailand. Journal of Infectious Diseases214(8), 1235-1242.  doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw323

Zhang, R., Lee, W.-C., Lau, Y.-L., Albrecht, L., Lopes, S. C. P., Costa, F. T. M., Suwanarusk, R., … Russell, B. (2016). Rheopathologic consequence of Plasmodium vivax rosette formation. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases10(8), e0004912.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004912

Teng, Y., Suwanarusk, R., Ngai, M. H., Srinivasan, R., Ong, A. S. M., Ho, B., … Chai, C. L. L. (2015). An amidation/cyclization approach to the synthesis of N-hydroxyquinolinones and their biological evaluation as potential anti-plasmodial, anti-bacterial, and iron(II)-chelating agents. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters25(3), 607-610.  doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.12.014

de Cassan, S. C., Shakri, A. R., Llewellyn, D., Elias, S. C., Cho, J. S., Goodman, A. L., … Suwanarusk, R., … Russell, B. M., … Draper, S. J. (2015). Preclinical assessment of viral vectored and protein vaccines targeting the Duffy-binding protein region II of Plasmodium vivaxFrontiers in Immunology6, 348. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00348

Malleret, B., Li, A., Zhang, R., Tan, K. S. W., Suwanarusk, R., Claser, C., … Russell, B. (2015). Plasmodium vivax: Restricted tropism and rapid remodeling of CD71-positive reticulocytes. Blood125(8), 1314-1324.  doi: 10.1182/blood-2014-08-596015

Malmquist, N. A., Sundriyal, S., Caron, J., Chen, P., Witkowski, B., Menard, D., Suwanarusk, R., … Scherf, A. (2015). Histone methyltransferase inhibitors are orally bioavailable, fast-acting molecules with activity against different species causing malaria in humans. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy59(2), 950-959.  doi: 10.1128/AAC.04419-14 

Suwanarusk, R., Russell, B., Ong, A., Sriprawat, K., Chu, C. S., PyaePhyo, A., … Renia, L. (2015). Methylene blue inhibits the asexual development of vivax malaria parasites from a region of increasing chloroquine resistance. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy70(1), 124-129.  doi: 10.1093/jac/dku326

Lee, W.-C., Malleret, B., Lau, Y.-L., Mauduit, M., Fong, M.-Y., Cho, J. S., Suwanarusk, R., … Russell, B. (2014). Glycophorin C (CD236R) mediates vivax malaria parasite rosetting to normocytes. Blood123(18), e100-e109.  doi: 10.1182/blood-2013-12-541698

Kuhen, K. L., Chatterjee, A. K., Rottmann, M., Gagaring, K., Borboa, R., Buenviaje, J., … Russell, B., Suwanarusk, R., … Diagana, T. T. (2014). KAF156 is an antimalarial clinical candidate with potential for use in prophylaxis, treatment, and prevention of disease transmission. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy58(9), 5060-5067.  doi: 10.1128/AAC.02727-13

Loh, C. C.-Y., Suwanarusk, R., Lee, Y. Q., Chang, K. W. K., Choy, K.-Y., Rénia, L., Russell, B., … Chow, L. M. C. (2014). Characterization of the commercially-available fluorescent chloroquine-BODIPY conjugate, LynxTag- CQGREEN, as a marker for chloroquine resistance and uptake in a 96-well plate assay. PLoS ONE9(10), e0110800.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110800

McNamara, C. W., Lee, M. C. S., Lim, C. S., Lim, S. H., Roland, J., Nagle, A., … Suwanarusk, R., Russell, B., … Winzeler, E. A. (2013). Targeting Plasmodium PI(4)K to eliminate malaria. Nature504(7479), 248-253.  doi: 10.1038/nature12782

Lee, W.-C., Russell, B., Lau, Y.-L., Fong, M.-Y., Chu, C., Sriprawat, K., … Suwanarusk, R., … Renia, L. (2013). Giemsa-stained wet mount based method for reticulocyte quantification: A viable alternative in resource limited or malaria endemic settings. PLoS ONE8(4), e60303.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060303

Malleret, B., Xu, F., Mohandas, N., Suwanarusk, R., Chu, C., Leite, J. A., … Russell, B. (2013). Significant biochemical, biophysical and metabolic diversity in circulating human cord blood reticulocytes. PLoS ONE8(10), e76062.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076062

Koh, S., Shimasaki, N., Suwanarusk, R., Ho, Z. Z., Chia, A., Banu, N., … Bertoletti, A. (2013). A practical approach to immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma using T cells redirected against hepatitis B virus. Molecular Therapy: Nucleic Acids2, e114.  doi: 10.1038/mtna.2013.43

Russell, B., Malleret, B., Suwanarusk, R., Anthony, C., Kanlaya, S., Lau, Y. L., … Renia, L. (2013). Field-based flow cytometry for ex vivo characterization of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparumantimalarial sensitivity. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy57(10), 5170-5174.  doi: 10.1128/AAC.00682-13

Russell, B., Suwanarusk, R., Malleret, B., Costa, F. T. M., Snounou, G., Baird, J. K., … Rénia, L. (2012). Human ex vivo studies on asexual Plasmodium vivax: The best way forward. International Journal for Parasitology42(12), 1063-1070.  doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2012.08.010

Rénia, L., Howland, S. W., Claser, C., Gruner, A. C., Suwanarusk, R., Teo, T.-H., Russell, B., & Ng, L. F. P. (2012). Cerebral malaria: Mysteries at the blood-brain barrier. Virulence3(2), 193-201.  doi: 10.4161/viru.19013

Chotivanich, K., Udomsangpetch, R., Suwanarusk, R., Pukrittayakamee, S., Wilairatana, P., Beeson, J. G., … White, N. J. (2012). Plasmodium vivax adherence to placental glycosaminoglycans. PLoS ONE7(4), e34509.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034509

Borlon, C., Russell, B., Sriprawat, K., Suwanarusk, R., Erhart, A., Renia, L., … D'Alessandro, U. (2012). Cryopreserved Plasmodium vivax and cord blood reticulocytes can be used for invasion and short term culture. International Journal for Parasitology42(2), 155-160.  doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2011.10.011

Kosaisavee, V., Lek-Uthai, U., Suwanarusk, R., Grüner, A. C., Russell, B., Nosten, F., … Snounou, G. (2012). Genetic diversity in new members of the reticulocyte binding protein family in Thai Plasmodium vivax isolates. PLoS ONE7(3), e32105.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032105

Kaewpongsri, S., Sriprawat, K., Suwanarusk, R., Kyle, D. E., Lek-Uthai, U., Leimanis, M., … Russell, B., … Renia, L. (2011). The presence of leukocytes in ex vivo assays significantly increases the 50-percent inhibitory concentrations of artesunate and chloroquine against Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparumAntimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy55(3), 1300-1304.  doi: 10.1128/AAC.01103-10

Prajapati, S. K., Joshi, H., Shalini, S., Patarroyo, M. A., Suwanarusk, R., Kumar, A., … Dash, A. P. (2011). Plasmodium vivax lineages: Geographical distribution, tandem repeat polymorphism, and phylogenetic relationship. Malaria Journal10, 374.  doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-374

Malleret, B., Claser, C., Ong, A. S. M., Suwanarusk, R., Sriprawat, K., Howland, S. W., Russell, B., … Rénia, L. (2011). A rapid and robust tri-color flow cytometry assay for monitoring malaria parasite development. Scientific Reports1, 118.  doi: 10.1038/srep00118

Russell, B., Suwanarusk, R., Borlon, C., Costa, F. T. M., Chu, C. S., Rijken, M. J., … Rénia, L. (2011). A reliable ex vivo invasion assay of human reticulocytes by Plasmodium vivaxBlood118(13), e74-e81.  doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-04-348748

Proux, S., Suwanarusk, R., Barends, M., Zwang, J., Price, R. N., Leimanis, M., … Russell, B., … Snounou, G. (2011). Considerations on the use of nucleic acid-based amplification for malaria parasite detection. Malaria Journal10, 323.  doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-10-323

Carvalho, B. O., Lopes, S. C. P., Nogueira, P. A., Orlandi, P. P., Bargieri, D. Y., Blanco, Y. C., … Russell, B., Suwanarusk, R., … Costa, F. T. M. (2010). On the cytoadhesion of Plasmodium vivax—infected erythrocytes. Journal of Infectious Diseases202(4), 638-647.  doi: 10.1086/654815

Leimanis, M. L., Jaidee, A., Sriprawat, K., Kaewpongsri, S., Suwanarusk, R., Barends, M., … Russell, B., … Nosten, F. (2010). Plasmodium vivax susceptibility to ferroquine. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy54(5), 2228-2230.  doi: 10.1128/AAC.01572-09

Rottmann, M., McNamara, C., Yeung, B. K. S., Lee, M. C. S., Zou, B., Russell, B., … Suwanarusk, R., … Diagana, T. T. (2010). Spiroindolones, a potent compound class for the treatment of malaria. Science329(5996), 1175-1180.  doi: 10.1126/science.1193225

Sriprawat, K., Kaewpongsri, S., Suwanarusk, R., Leimanis, M. L., Lek-Uthai, U., Phyo, A. P., … Russell, B., … Nosten, F. (2009). Effective and cheap removal of leukocytes and platelets from Plasmodium vivax infected blood. Malaria Journal8, 115.  doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-115

Lek-Uthai, U., Suwanarusk, R., Ruengweerayut, R., Skinner-Adams, T. S., Nosten, F., Gardiner, D. L., … Russell, B. (2008). Stronger activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors against clinical isolates of Plasmodium vivax than against those of P. falciparumAntimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy52(7), 2435-2441.  doi: 10.1128/AAC.00169-08

Russell, B., Chalfein, F., Prasetyorini, B., Kenangalem, E., Piera, K., Suwanarusk, R., … Price, R. N. (2008). Determinants of in vitro drug susceptibility testing of Plasmodium vivaxAntimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy52(3), 1040-1045.  doi: 10.1128/AAC.01334-07

Sharrock, W. W., Suwanarusk, R., Lek-Uthai, U., Edstein, M. D., Kosaisavee, V., Travers, T., … Russell, B. (2008). Plasmodium vivax trophozoites insensitive to chloroquine. Malaria Journal7, 94.  doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-94

Suwanarusk, R., Chavchich, M., Russell, B., Jaidee, A., Chalfein, F., Barends, M., … Price, R. N. (2008). Amplification of pvmdr1 associated with multidrug-resistant Plasmodium vivaxJournal of Infectious Diseases198(10), 1558-1564.  doi: 10.1086/592451

Suwanarusk, R., Russell, B., Chavchich, M., Chalfein, F., Kenangalem, E., Kosaisavee, V., … Price, R. N. (2007). Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium vivaxIn vitro characterisation and association with molecular polymorphisms. PLoS ONE2(10), e1089.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001089

Boonma, P., Christensen, P. R., Suwanarusk, R., Price, R. N., Russell, B., & Lek-Uthai, U. (2007). Comparison of three molecular methods for the detection and speciation of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparumMalaria Journal6, 124.  doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-124

Kosaisavee, V., Suwanarusk, R., Nosten, F., Kyle, D. E., Barrends, M., Jones, J., … Russell, B., & Lek-Uthai, U. (2006). Plasmodium vivax: Isotopic, PicoGreen, and microscopic assays for measuring chloroquine sensitivity in fresh and cryopreserved isolates. Experimental Parasitology114(1), 34-39. doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2006.02.006

Journal - Research Other

Imwong, M., Russell, B., Suwanarusk, R., Nzila, A., Leimanis, M. L., Sriprawat, K., … Renia, L. (2011). Methotrexate is highly potent against pyrimethamine-resistant Plasmodium vivax [Brief report]. Journal of Infectious Diseases203(2), 207-210.  doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiq024

Russell, B., Suwanarusk, R., & Lek-Uthai, U. (2006). Plasmodium vivax genetic diversity: Microsatellite length matters [Update]. Trends in Parasitology22(9), 399-401.  doi: 10.1016/

Suwanarusk, R., Cooke, B. M., Dondorp, A. M., Silamut, K., Sattabongkot, J., White, N. J., & Udomsangpetch, R. (2004). The deformability of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivaxJournal of Infectious Diseases189(2), 190-194.  doi: 10.1086/380468